Students read about and discuss the impact of the invention of the wooden plow on agricultural output, farmers, and consumers. They will use the wooden plow example to identify the potential relationships between agricultural innovations and food output, improved standards of living, and the population of ancient societies. Students then study a multi-tiered timeline showing key agricultural innovations in ancient times and suggest impacts on agricultural output, farmers, and consumers. From the multi-tiered timeline, students can draw conclusions about the impact of increased agricultural output on individuals and societies. Finally, students participate in a simple simulation that illustrates how the introduction of a new technology can increase labor productivity. As an assessment, students read a fictional story and answer questions about a farming family in the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia around 4000 B.C.E.